Archivi categoria: studio

Decoupling Livestock from Land Use through Industrial Feed Production Pathways

Decoupling Livestock from Land Use through Industrial Feed Production Pathways

Environ. Sci. Technol., 2018, 52 (13), pp 7351–7359
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b00216

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.8b00216

One of the main challenges for the 21st century is to balance the increasing demand for high-quality proteins while mitigating environmental impacts. In particular, cropland-based production of protein-rich animal feed for livestock rearing results in large-scale agricultural land-expansion, nitrogen pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we propose and analyze the long-term potential of alternative animal feed supply routes based on industrial production of microbial proteins (MP). Our analysis reveals that by 2050, MP can replace, depending on socio-economic development and MP production pathways, between 10–19% of conventional crop-based animal feed protein demand. As a result, global cropland area, global nitrogen losses from croplands and agricultural greenhouse gas emissions can be decreased by 6% (0–13%), 8% (−3–8%), and 7% (−6–9%), respectively. Interestingly, the technology to industrially produce MP at competitive costs is directly accessible for implementation and has the potential to cause a major structural change in the agro-food system.

 

 

6th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, Naxos Island, Greece, 13–16 June 2018

The Conference aims to address the significant issue of sustainable solid waste management through the promotion of safe practices & effective technologies. The Conference focuses mainly on modern solid waste technologies. It aims to stimulate the interest of scientists and citizens and inform them about the latest developments in the field of municipal solid waste management. Separation at source, Biological Treatment, the treatment at central facilities, waste prevention, biowaste utilization, recycling promotion, Waste-to-energy technologies & energy recovery, smart technologies for waste management, sludge management, agricultural and livestock waste, management of specific waste streams (construction & demolition waste, waste from electrical and electronic equipment, etc.),biotechnology, circular economy, Best Available techniques, symbiosis networks, energy consumption and saving, carbon footprint and water footprint, zero-waste initiatives, plastics and bioplastics, marine litter constitute main conference subjects.

Per scaricare i posters presentati dai membri dell’Agrifood LCA LAB visita la pagina Poster

Per scaricare il programma completo: link

Plastica “eco” da mais e fruttosio. Produrla sarà più economico e sostenibile di quella tradizionale da oli minerali

L’arrivo sul mercato della plastica vegetale è probabilmente più vicina, grazie agli studi condotti per dieci anni dai chimici dell’Università del Wisconsin di Madison. Ne dà notizia Science riportando in un lavoro scientifico e in un articolo che riassume le caratteristiche di un prodotto che nasce dalle pannocchie di mais e in generale dalle fonti di fruttosio.

Oggi la sostanza più utilizzata per bottiglie e imballaggi è il PET (polietilene tereftalato), ricavato dalla lavorazione di oli minerali. Si tratta di una sostanza con un’elevata impronta ambientale e secondo alcune stime la produzione mondiale è associata all’emissione di 100 milioni di tonnellate di CO2 ogni anno, per non parlare dello smaltimento e dei problemi associati.

Per questo motivo da molti anni si cercano alternative, e una delle più promettenti è una plastica chiamata PEF, o polietilene furandicarbossilato,  sintetizzata a partire da un elemento base chiamato FDCA o acido furandicarbossilico, sintetizzato da fonti rinnovabili, a costi elevati.

Leggi su “Il Fatto Alimentare”

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23° SETAC Europe LCA Case Study Symposium

The theme for the 23rd SETAC Europe LCA Case Study Symposium is Life Cycle Assessment for Decision Support.

Life Cycle Assessment for decision support.

The focus of these two days is on case studies that highlight both solutions and challenges when applying consequential modelling for comparisons of products, projects, and strategies. The various sessions of the scientific programme cover all aspects of the application of LCA to decision making in business practice, environmental product declarations, due diligence, social responsibility, environmental management, and policy development.

The programme consists of 6 plenum sessions on the topics detailed below, each composed of 7 oral presentations and around 45 minutes for a moderated plenum discussion. There will be no parallel sessions. This year a new concept for poster sessions will be put in place: Posters will be produced, reviewed and presented electronically; symposium participants can view posters in advance of the symposium and choose (by prioritised web-reservation) which posting presenters they wish to interact with during the posting sessions that takes place each day during the lunch break.

Session topics:

  • Consequential modelling in policy-making, Input-Output databases, and economic models
  • Marginal suppliers and temporal aspects of consequential LCI modelling
  • Views on consequential EPDs and PCRs
  • Co-product substitution and other aspects of consequential LCI modelling
  • Model uncertainty and quality assurance in LCA
  • Challenges for teaching consequential LCA and communication of results

Programma: Presentazioni    Presentazioni Brevi

BACENETTI_FALCONE_Electricity_from_biogas_in_Italy_Environmental_consequences_related_to_the_elimination_of_economic_subsidies

 

ABOUT SETAC AND SETAC EUROPE

SETAC is a not-for-profit, worldwide professional organization comprised of more than 6,000 individuals and institutions in l00 countries dedicated to the study, analysis and solution of environmental problems, the management and regulation of natural resources, research and development, and environmental education. Our mission is to support the development of principles and practices for protection, enhancement and management of sustainable environmental quality and ecosystem integrity.

SETAC Europe SETAC Europe is one of five Geographic Units (GU) of the global Society, established to promote and further the mission of SETAC in Europe, the Middle East and Russia.

Insegnamento “Analisi dell’impatto ambientale delle filiere agricole”

E’ stato attivato per la prima volta presso la Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari dell’università degli Studi di Milano l’insegnamento “Analisi dell’impatto ambientale delle filiere agricole”.

Il corso della durata di 4 CFU è focalizzato sulle metodologie, con particolare riferimento al Life Cycle Assessment, per la valutazione degli impatti ambientali di alcune filiere agricole.

Per maggiori info sul corso visita la Pagina ufficiale mentre per alcuni esempi di applicazione dell’approcio LCA alle filiere agroalimenti visita la sezione pubblicazioni

Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change

Marco Springmann, H. C. J. Godfraya, M. Raynera, P. Scarborough

 PNAS 2016 vol. 113 (15) 4146–4151 www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1523119113

What we eat greatly influences our personal health and the environment we all share. Recent analyses have highlighted the likely dual health and environmental benefits of reducing the fraction of animalsourced foods in our diets. Here, we couple for the first time, to our knowledge, a region-specific global health model based on dietary and weight-related risk factors with emissions accounting and economic valuation modules to quantify the linked health and environmental consequences of dietary changes. We find that the impacts of dietary changes toward less meat and more plant-based diets vary greatly among regions. The largest absolute environmental and health benefits result from diet shifts in developing countries whereas Western high-income and middle-income countries gain most in per capita terms. Transitioning toward more plant-based diets that are in line with standard dietary guidelines could reduce global mortality by 6–10% and food-related greenhouse gas emissions by 29–70% compared with a reference scenario in 2050. We find that the monetized value of the improvements in health would be comparable with, or exceed, the value of the environmental benefits although the exact valuation method used considerably affects the estimated amounts.
Overall, we estimate the economic benefits of improving diets to be
1–31 trillion US dollars, which is equivalent to 0.4–13% of global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2050. However, significant changes in the global food system would be necessary for regional diets to match the dietary patterns studied here.

ARTICOLO COMPLETO su: PNAS 113, 4146-4151

 

Come produrre latte con l’agricoltura sostenibile

 

Buone pratiche che contribuiscono a limitare le emissioni e a preservare e/o accrescere le riserve di carbonio dei terreni utilizzati per produrre foraggi per l’alimentazione dei ruminanti. Queste le linee guida del progetto coordinato dal CRPA.   E ancora, foraggicoltura conservativa e nei territori di montagna.

Leggi tutto l’articolo sull’Informatore Zootecnico

Precision Agriculture Technologies and GHG Emissions

Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

Sustainability 20179(8), 1339; doi:10.3390/su9081339

Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

Il riscaldamento globale impoverirà gli Stati Uniti

Uno studio pubblicato su Science simula gli effetti del cambiamento climatico sull’economia degli USA nei prossimi decenni.

Estimating economic damage from climate change in the United States. 
Solomon Hsiang et al., Science  30 Jun 2017, 356, 1362-1369
DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4369
 

“Se non si porranno rimedi assisteremo al più colossale trasferimento di ricchezza dai poveri ai ricchi nella storia degli Usa” E in alcune aree del Sud degli USA il reddito pro capite potrebbe crollare del 25%.

Articolo sulla Repubblica del 30 giugno 2017

Articolo originale su Science (Estimating economic damage from climate change in the United States – Hsiang et al., 2017)

Una review per l’impatto ambientale di diverse categorie di alimenti – Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories

Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories

Stephen Clune a,  Enda Crossin b , Karli Verghese c

a Lancaster Institute for the Contemporary Arts, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK

b School of Aerospace, Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, RMIT, Australia

c Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia

This paper presents the results of a systematic literature review of greenhouse gas emissions for different food categories from life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, to enable streamline calculations that could inform dietary choice. The motivation for completing the paper was the inadequate synthesis of food greenhouse gas emissions available in the public domain. The paper reviewed 369 published studies that provided 1718 global warming potential (GWP) values for 168 varieties of fresh produce. A meta-analysis of the LCA studies was completed for the following categories: fresh vegetables (root vegetables, brassica, leaves and stems); fresh fruits (pepo, hesperidium, true berries, pomes, aggregates fruits and drupes); staples (grains, legumes, nuts, seeds and rice); dairy (almond/coconut milk, soy milk, dairy milk, butter and cheese); non-ruminant livestock (chicken, fish, pork); and ruminant livestock (lamb and beef). The meta-analysis indicates a clear greenhouse gas hierarchy emerging across the food categories, with grains, fruit and vegetables having the lowest impact and meat from ruminants having the highest impact. The meta-analysis presents the median, mean, standard deviation, upper and lower quartile, minimum and maximum results for each food category. The resultant data enables streamline calculations of the global warming potential of human diets, and is illustrated by a short case study of an Australian family’s weekly shop. The database is provided in the Appendix as a resource for practitioners. The paper concludes with recommendations for future LCA studies to focus upon with respect to content and approach.