Archivi tag: coltivazioni

Climate change has likely already affected global food production

I cambiamenti climatici stanno già colpendo l’agricoltura: cibo a rischio

I cambiamenti climatici stanno modificando l’agricoltura a livello globale con un peggioramento della sicurezza alimentare anche nei Paesi più ricchi, quindi non solo in quelli più poveri. Gli scienziati hanno messo a confronto i dati sul clima con quelli sull’agricoltura ed ecco cosa hanno scoperto.

ABSTRACT:

Crop yields are projected to decrease under future climate conditions, and recent research suggests that yields have already been impacted. However, current impacts on a diversity of crops subnationally and implications for food security remains unclear. Here, we constructed linear regression relationships using weather and reported crop data to assess the potential impact of observed climate change on the yields of the top ten global crops–barley, cassava, maize, oil palm, rapeseed, rice, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane and wheat at ~20,000 political units. We find that the impact of global climate change on yields of different crops from climate trends ranged from -13.4% (oil palm) to 3.5% (soybean). Our results show that impacts are mostly negative in Europe, Southern Africa and Australia but generally positive in Latin America. Impacts in Asia and Northern and Central America are mixed. This has likely led to ~1% average reduction (-3.5 X 1013 kcal/year) in consumable food calories in these ten crops. In nearly half of food insecure countries, estimated caloric availability decreased. Our results suggest that climate change has already affected global food production.

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Ortofrutta, le mafie controllano il trasporto. E i prezzi triplicano dal campo alla tavola

Ci occupiamo di AGRIFOOD, e spesso è da altri punti di vista che si comprende meglio la realtà di questo settore e della sua sostenibilità.

Interessantissimo articolo su VALORI:

Ortofrutta, le mafie controllano il trasporto. E i prezzi triplicano dal campo alla tavola

Come è possibile che i produttori agricoli vengano spesso pagati una miseria per i loro prodotti eppure, arrivando sui banchi dei mercati, il prezzo di frutta e verdura sia nel frattempo triplicato? Colpa delle storture della filiera di distribuzione ma non solo. C’è anche una questione di illegalità e di criminalità organizzata: mafia, camorra e ‘ndragheta hanno infatti messo le proprie mani, pesantemente, sulla logistica e sul trasporto dell’ortofrutta. Così il cibo fresco che arriva sulle nostre tavole diventa pretesto per il riciclaggio di denaro sporco e per coprire affari illeciti come il traffico di droga e rifiuti.

Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability

Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability
Zach Conrad , Meredith T. Niles, Deborah A. Neher, Eric D. Roy, Nicole E. Tichenor, Lisa Jahns

PLoS ONE 13(4): e0195405. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195405

Improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing environmental impact is a critical focus globally. Metrics linking diet quality and sustainability have typically focused on a limited suite of indicators, and have not included food waste. To address this important research gap, we examine the relationship between food waste, diet quality, nutrient waste, and multiple measures of sustainability: use of cropland, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Data on food intake, food waste, and application rates of agricultural amendments were collected from diverse US government sources. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015. A biophysical simulation model was used to estimate the amount of cropland associated with wasted food. This analysis finds that US consumers wasted 422g of food per person daily, with 30 million acres of cropland used to produce this food every year. This accounts for 30% of daily calories available for consumption, one-quarter of daily food (by weight) available for consumption, and 7% of annual cropland acreage. Higher quality diets were associated with greater amounts of food waste and greater amounts of wasted irrigation water and pesticides, but less cropland waste. This is largely due to fruits and vegetables, which are health-promoting and require small amounts of cropland, but require substantial amounts of agricultural inputs. These results suggest that simultaneous efforts to improve diet quality and reduce food waste are necessary. Increasing consumers’ knowledge about how to prepare and store fruits and vegetables will be one of the practical solutions to reducing food waste.

 

Precision Agriculture Technologies and GHG Emissions

Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

Sustainability 20179(8), 1339; doi:10.3390/su9081339

Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

Progetto LIFE Forage4Climate

Visita il sito del progetto LIFE Forage4Climate  

( http://forage4climate.crpa.it/)

Il progetto ha l’obiettivo di dimostrare come i sistemi agricoli collegati alla produzione di latte possono essere attivi nella mitigazione del cambiamento del clima attraverso:

  • l’applicazione di buone pratiche (BP) che contribuiscono a limitare le emissioni e a preservare e/o accrescere le riserve di carbonio dei terreni (seminativi, prati e pascoli) utilizzati per produrre foraggi per l’alimentazione dei ruminanti (bovini, ovini e caprini);
  • la messa a punto e la diffusione di strumenti di valutazione dei carbon stock e delle emissioni di gas ad effetto serra (green house gasses – GHG) rispondenti ai requisiti richiesti da gruppo intergovernativo di esperti sui cambiamenti climatici (IPCC 2006) per valutare gli effetti degli interventi di mitigazione.

    Forage4Climate vuole contribuire a diffondere una applicazione solida e trasparente della Decisione n. 529/2013/UE relativamente alla contabilizzazione delle emissioni e degli assorbimenti di GHG risultanti da attività di uso del suolo, cambiamento di uso del suolo e silvicoltura (LULUCF) per i sistemi foraggeri che caratterizzano due macro aree climatiche europee: continentale per il latte vaccino, mediterranea per il latte ovino e caprino.

LIBRO BIANCO Sfide e opportunità dello sviluppo rurale per la mitigazione e l’adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici

E’ stato pubblicato l’interessante LIBRO BIANCO su:

Sfide e opportunità dello sviluppo rurale per la mitigazione e l’adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici

i Paesi sviluppati si sono posti in primo piano per poter delineare delle strategie idonee sia per l’adattamento che per la mitigazione e l’Italia, come Stato membro dell’Unione europea che ha aderito al Protocollo di Kyoto, è pienamente coinvolta in tale sforzo. Risulta quindi di fondamentale importanza individuare delle misure di mitigazione e di adattamento che siano integrate, in modo coerente e sinergico, in una strategia che coinvolga vari settori (agricoltura e zootecnia, energia, industria, trasporti, la società stessa) ed i vari livelli di governo.

scaricabile da: RETE RURALE

 

 

Climate Impacts on Agriculture and Food Supply

Interessante esposizione breve dal sito EPA degli USA delle principali implicazioni dell’impatto dei cambiamenti climatici sull’agricoltura e quindi sulla produzione di alimenti vegetali ed animali.

EPA USA – Climate Impacts on Agriculture and Food Supply

Short-term outlook for EU arable crops, dairy and meat markets

The Short-term outlook is based on reflections of market experts within the Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development of the European Commission, using the latest data available.

It is published 3 times per year (in late winter, early summer and early autumn).

EU Short Term Outlook arable crops, dairy and meat

 

 

Climate impact of producing more grain legumes in Europe

The grain legumes pea and faba beans are among the relevant alternatives to imported soybeans for livestock feed for growing in the European agricultural systems, but what is the climate impact of an increased European production of grain legumes such as pea and faba bean? In order to estimate the overall climate impact of producing more grain legumes in Europe, we applied Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The results showed that carbon footprints per kg protein of pea and faba bean in Europe did not vary much for different regions in Europe. Based on FAO statistics and an expert survey (Reckling et al., 2014), it was assumed that an increased European production of grain legumes will decrease the import of soybean cake and decrease the export of wheat from Europe. Taken that into account, results showed a small climate benefit of producing more grain legumes in Europe compared to importing soybeans to Europe.

Keywords: grain legumes, LCA, carbon footprint, soybeans, pea, faba bean