with Piero Bertino
Publication year: 2023


In the first part of this report, we use data from the latest edition of the European Labour Force Survey (2021) to provide a concise, easily accessible and up-to-date source of reference regarding the size, characteristics, and relative economic performance of immigrants in EU countries.

In the second part we focus on naturalization patterns of immigrants in Europe and on the labour market differentials between naturalized and non-naturalized immigrants. First, we describe the main patterns characterizing naturalizations in Europe over the last decade; then, we describe the characteristics of naturalized vis-a-vis non-naturalized long-term immigrants; finally, we analyse the so-called naturalization premium, i.e. the differentials in labour market outcomes between naturalized and non-naturalized long-term immigrants.

We show that naturalized immigrants enjoy a considerable naturalization premium. They have a higher employment probability, are employed in more prestigious and better paid occupations, and earn higher wages than non-citizens even when they are employed in similar occupations. The naturalization premium is highest for immigrant women and for those from outside the European Union.

Featured in:

Domani; La Stampa; Integrazionemigranti.gov.it; Stranieriinitalia.it.