Cell models

In vitro cell culture is the process by which eukaryotic cells, especially animal cells, are grown in a controlled environment. Different types of cell cultures have been developed: cells can be isolated from solid tissues or purified from blood, can be grown in suspension or in adherent cultures; there are primary cells derived directly from a subject with a limited life span, and established or immortalized cell lines that have been modified to proliferate indefinitely. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are generated directly from a somatic cell and can propagate indefinitely or give rise to every other cell type in the body. In vitro cell culture allows researchers to study cellular behavior, physiological processes, and responses to various stimuli in a controlled and reproducible manner. Such an approach has numerous applications in various fields, including cell biology, medicine, drug development, and biotechnology.