Organoids are 3D cell structures that mimic organs, enabling study of diseases, drug responses, and cell functions in vitro. Organoids are derived from either pluripotent stem cells or tissue-specific stem cells, and grown in 3D medium supplemented with tissue specific factors. They provide versatile experimental models that can be expanded, biobanked, and analyzed from limited patient samples like biopsies.

The development of 3D cell culture protocols is improving the characterization of patient tissue molecular blueprints in a way that was previously inaccessible toward the effective implementation of precision medicine approaches. Indeed, through the integration with single-cell multi omics, unmatched functional maps can be drawn to improve diagnostics, prognostics, and therapies. In summary, organoids are central to biomedical progress as customizable, high-resolution disease models that elucidate patient-specific molecular pathology for targeted therapy.